Dinyar Lalkaka introduces this extravagant fish - a species that burns holes in wallets the world over. In the UK, one grand (a thousand pounds) was, at one time, the exorbitant asking price for one of these inky beauties. The term, appropriately, gives rise to their fishkeeping slang name of Synodontis grandulosus! I'll leave it with Dinyar now to further discuss this lacustrine gem...
Few catfish have acquired more mystique than the majestic Synodontis granulosa, one of six described Synodontis species endemic to Lake Tanganyika. In part, this mystique reflects the princely price the fish commands. When available, it is often the most expensive fish on vendors' sales lists. Whereas the prices of nearly all once-expensive catfish have deflated rapidly over the last decade, the going rates for S. granulosa have come down only slightly, dropping from around US $500 as recently as early 2000 to about $300 today (and about 300 in Europe). If you are going to pay several hundred dollars for a fish, you'd better earn lots of bragging points with your fish buddies. And have a good explanation for your spouse!
A second reason for the high price and mystique of S. granulosa is that the fish is relatively uncommon in the wild. Unlike many Lake Tanganyika Synodontis, it is a loner, and thus impossible to catch in large numbers. Moreover, it is found in deep water (about 50 meters) at some distance from the shore. Until a few years ago, this was beyond the limits of existing diving technology and the fish were mostly caught in gill nets, a low yield method which restricted the volume of exports. As a result, only 20-30 fish were exported from the Lake each year. Better diving technology has changed this situation, and it appears that many hundred fish are now shipped out of the Lake annually. Whether this is a sustainable level remains to be seen. There is already some evidence that the rocky habitat of S. granulosa is under growing ecological pressure.
The third and best reason for the extraordinary mystique of S. granulosa is that it is truly an exceptionally elegant and intelligent fish that quickly becomes the cynosure of any Tanganyika tank. The body is brown-black, shot with a purple sheen and highlighted with bright white barbels and bright white edging on the posterior borders of its fins. Although not evident at first sight, close inspection reveals that the skin of the whole body, including the adipose fin, is covered with small, closely set granular papilla (hence the name "granulosa"). Most specimens are imported at a size of 12-18 cm, but mature adults can reach 25 cm SL.
S. granulosa quickly learns who the "Food Guy" is and will swim up to be fed by hand. Every time I put my hand into its tank, my "granny" comes and nibbles at it! (It tickles, but unlike the nipping of S. polli, which sometimes do the same thing, doesn't hurt. My three year old daughter asks, "Daddy, why does this fish keep licking you?") Many aficionados of Tanganyika fish keep their S. granulosa with herbivorous fish like Tropheus, and are still able to supplement their diet with meaty fare by hand feeding them. They have a keen sense of smell and are usually the first to get at food. When I feed my Tanganyika tank, my granny races across the surface, upside down in classic Synodontis-style, vacuuming up everything she can. Most specimens are voracious eaters and can easily become overfed in community tanks. If S. granulosa has a fault, it is gluttony.
In smaller tanks, S. granulosa tends to be both reclusive and aggressive towards other Synodontis, especially conspecifics. Females tend to be a bit larger and more aggressive than the males. If you are lucky enough to keep several S. granulosa, it's best to keep four or more in order to spread out aggression. Some specimens are bolder than others, but almost all will become the life and soul of the party if kept in a tank of 125 gallons (about 500 liters) or more, with lots of rockwork, ample open swimming space above the rocks, and the company of schools of other Lake Tanganyika Synodontis species.
Adult S. granulosa are easy to identify, unlike the other five Synodontis species endemic to Lake Tanganyika. Moreover, the taxonomic status of S. granulosa is so clear that in the 103 years since it was first described by George Boulenger in 1900, not a single synonym has been introduced. By comparison, taxonomic confusion still swirls around the identities of other Lake Tanganyika Synodontis such as S. petricola, Matthes, 1959, which clearly needs to be divided into multiple separate species, and to a lesser extent, S. tanganaicae and S. dhonti.
The distinctiveness of S. granulosa is easy to see in the Venn diagram at
the right. Some Tanganyika Synodontis are granulose, like S. granulosa (though to a lesser extent), but
all except S. granulosa are distinctly spotted.
While the diagram accurately describes Tanganyika Synodontis as typically seen in the aquarium, in fact, it's not quite that clear cut, because juvenile and sub-adult S. granulosa also have spots (not to mention the fact that all six endemic species have white fin edging to some degree). Indeed, very young granulosa have a color pattern that, to the untrained eye, could easily be mistaken for S. multipunctatus! In the picture below of a sub-adult specimen, faint spots can still be seen. Moreover, fully mature S. dhonti and S. tanganaicae lose their spots.
This illustrates a general fact about the entire Lake Tanganyika Synodontis species flock: fry and juveniles of all endemic species look very similar: the distinctive characteristics of each species only become fully apparent as the fish reach adulthood.
Could this be the reason that very young wild-caught S. granulosa have apparently never entered the trade? In any event, little is known about S. granulosa' spawning habits, and the fish has never been spawned naturally by aquarists. While it has been bred by hormone injection in it While it has been bred by hormone injection in the Czech Republic, it is reliably reported that these artificially spawned fish are the result of hybridization by unscrupulous breeders and lose their resemblance to true S. granulosa as they mature. Given the limited numbers of S. granulosa in the wild, its apparently threatened habitat and its extraordinary elegance and charm, it is only to be hoped that future captive breeding efforts can lead to the emergence of a healthy and sustainable tank-raised population spawned without recourse to artificial hybridization. Planet Earth would shine less brightly were thi elegant fish to disappear.
Special thanks to Greg Pierson for his major contributions to this article.
This article has had 9373 hits. Photo credits for the images used in this article can be found on the Cat-eLog page.
|Cat-eLog Data Sheet|
|Scientific Name||Synodontis granulosus Boulenger, 1900|
|Common Name(s)||White Seam Syno
Deep Lake Syno, Granny, Leuchtbaken-Fiederbartwels (Germany)
|Type Locality||N. end of Lake Tanganyika.|
|Pronunciation||sin oh don tiss - gran you LOW suss|
|Etymology||Synodontis: From the Greek syn, meaning together, and odontos, meaning tooth; in reference to the closely-spaced lower jaw teeth.|
|Size||250mm (9.8") SL. Find near, nearer or same sized spp.|
|Identification||All species in the genus Synodontis have a hardened head cap that has attached a process (humeral process) which is situated behind the gill opening and pointed towards the posterior. The dorsal fin and pectoral fins have a hardened first ray which is serrated. Caudal fin is always forked. There is one pair of maxillary barbels, sometimes having membranes and occasionally branched. The two pairs of mandibular barbels are often branched and can have nodes attached. The cone-shaped teeth in the upper jaw are short. S-shaped and movable in the lower jaw. These fish produce audible sounds when disturbed rubbing the base of the pectoral spine against the pectoral girdle.
At least 1/3 to 1/2 of all fins have a snow white edging. Long white barbles. Inky sheen to brownish body which bears a spotted pattern in younger fish. The contrast of this spotting diminishes with age.
|Sexing||Both sexes have identical colouration. Females grow slightly larger and tend to be plumper than males. Males have a 4-5 mm genital papilla near the anus.|
|Distribution||Lake Tanganyika, East Africa
African Waters, Western Rift Valley Lakes, Tanganyika (click on these areas to find other species found there) (Click the map-icon to show/hide map of species distribution)
|IUCN Red List Status||Least Concern|
|pH||7.8 - 8.4|
|Temperature||24.0-28.0°C or 75.2-82.4°F (Show others within this range)|
|Feeding||Voracious eater that will accept virtually all aquarium food, but prefers meaty foods such as shrimp and clam. Apparently feeds on small molluscs in the wild.|
|Furniture||A network of caves formed by piling up rocks, with ample swimming space above. Vallisneria and / or hornwort is optional.|
|Compatibility||Best kept in a tank of 125 gallons (500 liters) or more. May become reclusive and aggressive in tanks smaller than 70 gallons (250 liters). May jump out of tank in first few days after initial introduction.|
|Suggested Tankmates||Tanganyikan Synodontis, robust Tanganyikan cichlids and Tanganyika eels.|
|Breeding||Breeding has been reported by a UK based wholesaler, but no details have been made available. Has also been bred by hormone injection in Eastern Europe.|
|References||Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (Ser. 7)v. 6 (no. 35) - pp480|
|Registered Keepers||(1) sidguppy (k: 6), (2) synoguy, (3) Richard B (k: 3), who also notes: "Two small individuals which are tank bred from the spawnings reported in the threads in PC. Clearly one of the individuals is superior to the other & bosses the other at times. At 6 May 07 they are both around 47mm TL & still show the small dark spots
", (4) caudalis (k: 2), (5) synodont_fan, (6) Julie (k: 10), who also notes: "Appears to be two color types. One is more of a tan/light grey body and the other is a darker gray almost black body with a darker gray belly.
Fish are distributed in 3 different 75 gallon tanks.", (7) derrickrscott, (8) unblinded (k: 4), who also notes: "My wife gave up the fight, I now own 4. Astonishingly beautiful, though. Got 2-4 on 9/17/12.", (9) toby, (10) michele, (11) Majolica, (12) dasfocus198720, (13) zigster, (14) Miss Dib Dabs, (15) SHEAG, (16) arapaimag, (17) maynard1982 (k: 2), (18) nerdoutlaw (k: 2), (19) amiidae, (20) zipper, (21) james gilbertson, who also notes: "Again a very shy fish, so stunning but only comes out when i turn off the lights for the night, bought from a garden centre as a common syno, result :)", (22) richb (k: 2), who also notes: "This pair lived pretty happily in the tub until just a few months ago. One of the pair started appearing a bit tattered. I pulled it and it is recovering in a 55 gallon tank. I would like to add them to the 900 gallon sometime and see if they would spwan. Very cool, but shy. The fish I removed from the tub is now in the 900 awaiting its partner.", (23) taylor1410, (24) shooter50014, (25) lasteeves, (26) Ostafrika-Barsche.
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|Last Update||2013 Jul 19 13:23 (species record created: 2001 Apr 21 00:00)|