Catfish of the Month Right August 2004

Asterophysus batrachus
Gulper Catfish, Ogre Catfish, Stormundet Rovmalle (Denmark) - Asterophysus batrachus   Kner, 1858

Article © Julian Dignall, uploaded August 01, 2004.

There are many big mouths in the catfish world. Thankfully most of them come with fins attached. Perhaps the biggest of them all is this month's featured catfish, Asterophysus batrachus - well deserving of the name Gulper Driftwood Catfish. The fishes enormous gape relative to its size and its thin, elastic skin allows this fish to simply swallow food whole in an instant. To demonstrate the point, the picture below is of an 24cm Asterophysus which has recently despatched a 40cm male Crenicichla marmorata; previously thought to be safe from the big gulp of the catfish.

Although uncommon in the wild, exports are available from time to time by they tend to come with an very high price tag as this is something of a collectable fish. Aside from the catfish connoisseur, this fish also appeals to those who just generally like the unusual or the "predatory fish set" that delight in the bold and lethal.

Asterophysus batrachusThese wonderful pictures come from Oliver Lucanus at, Oliver also reports some other aspects of this species both in nature and captivity.

The fish is uncommon in the wild where it is found in black water. Although described from Brazil it is also found in other countries' black water habitats. In nature, the fish spring into action the moment it gets dark; they cruise around the shallows at that time. While snorkelling I saw them eat angelfish sideways. Further testament to the utility of that mouth! Snorkelling at night with these fish can be extremely unsettling because the fish will try to swallow anything and will try to fit your hand into its mouth from every angle before giving up. The biggest animals I have seen in the wild were around 25cm, my animals are from 24-20cm and have not grown visibly in two years. They may eat fish at least double their own length.

The skin on the beast is very thin and flexible, which is why it can extend so grotesquely and swallow anything. Interestingly, threatened animals may blow themselves up with water like a puffer. They are however very easy to keep. I have never seen an infection on the skin, even with deep gouges from the fish trying to swallow each other. I have six fish together for four years, with no interaction, except attempts at swallowing each other especially at feeding time when there is a lot of food such as Krill or large earthworms in the water.

The moment there is anything new in the tank the Astrophysus will begin to swim around until they find it and try to swallow it. No matter if it is a net, arm or person or guppy. They know, (amazing in an almost electric fish sensory system sort of way), the moment that a new item has been introduced to the tank. Although they swallow anything in sight, these fish will filter feed when needed - just like a whale shark, daphnia are among my monsters favourites.

All in all, a certain candidate for the ultimate aquarium-suitable predatory fish; certainly one of the "catfish world's" impressive predators.

Copyright information for the images used in this article can be found on the species' full Cat-eLog page.

Down Cat-eLog Data Sheet
Scientific Name Asterophysus batrachus  Kner, 1858
Common Names Gulper Catfish
Ogre Catfish, Stormundet Rovmalle (Denmark)
Type Locality Marabitanos, Brazil.
Pronunciation Ass TERR oh fye suss - bat RACK uss
Etymology Asterophysus: From the Greek aster, meaning star and physa, meaning bellows; in reference to the blind viliform processes around the periphery of the swimbladder characteristic of this genus. 
Down Species Information
Size 250mm or 9.8" SL. Find near, nearer or same sized spp.
Identification The trapdoor like 'salmonesque' lower jaw is this species best external / visual characteristic.
Sexing The leading rays of the male's anal fin are fused to form a urinogenital organ used (at least in related genera) in internal fertilization of the female. This modification of the anal fin does not manifest itself until the male is approaching adulthood.
Down Habitat Information
Distribution South America: Orinoco and Negro River basins.
Amazon, Middle Amazon (Solimoes), Negro (click on these areas to find other species found there)
Orinoco (click on these areas to find other species found there)

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IUCN Red List Category Not Evaluated
pH 5.6 - 7.0
Temperature 24.0-29.0°C or 75.2-84.2°F (Show species within this range)
Other Parameters A blackwater species.
Down Husbandry Information
Feeding These fish will literally try and eat anything. Krill appears a real favourite, but all foods are accepted. The fish becomes more active during the day when not recently fed, feeding should be as with large pimelodids, less and less frequent with age. You would expect to feed an adult weekly. This may not be possible in tanks where the fish is kept with other species and so the fish should be fed smaller regular portions of food which may reduce its activity during the day. User data.
Furniture The fish like to rest and hide in driftwood piles during the day but should be given at least 3 quarters of the aquarium as open swimming room for nocturnal prowling. Tall plants can also be used to coax the fish out during daylight feeding time in less stark surroundings. Choice of substrate is unimportant.
Compatibility Obviously care is required in housing fish with this species. Fish large enough not to be eaten but non-predatory to the point they will not eat the Asterophysus.
Suggested Tankmates Fish large enough not to be eaten (amazingly for this species, this means at least twice the size of the Asterophysus, larger is less risky) but non-predatory to the point they will not eat the Asterophysus. Larger characins, doradids and loricariids are probably the best bet.
Breeding Unreported.
Breeding Reports There is no breeding report.
Down Further Information
Reference Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 26 (s. 373), pp 403 [33], Pl. 5 (figs. 13-15).
Registered Keepers There are 25 registered keepers, view all "my cats" data.
Wishlists Love this species? Click the heart to add it to your wish list.
There are 2 wishes to keep this species, see who wants what.
Spotters Spotted this species somewhere? Click the binoculars!
There are 17 records of this fish being seen, view them all.
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Last Update 2020 Sep 17 11:10 (species record created: 2004 Aug 01 11:22)

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