Catfish of the Month Right Arrow August 2002 • Article © Julian Dignall, uploaded August 01, 2002



LDA007, L114, Leopard Cactus Pleco, Demini Leopard Cactus Pleco - Pseudacanthicus cf. leopardus   Fowler, 1914

Pleco common names are the tabloid press of the catfish world. Honestly. Not a day goes by without a new "super king dragon regal pleco" or the like making an appearance on an import list. It makes l-numbers look downright organised. When writing this I was tempted to write a pleco name generator along the lines of the star wars name generator or similar. (Check out this yahoo link if you have no idea what I'm talking about - the hobbit one is very good) These entertaining web sites could surely do with a pleco name version. Why we need to concatenate such words normally reserved for large felines, fantasy creatures and royalty to describe South American loricariids I do not know. Well, I actually do know and it's simple: money. The more attractive or at least outlandish the name, the more likely it is to be ordered, especially in pleco-crazed recipient countries. Fortunately many exporters are now equipped with digital cameras and, as they say, a picture tells (or in this case saves) a thousand words.

Pseudacanthicus leopardusSo, you might think that I don't like the name leopard cactus pleco. Well, it's a game of two halves really, the leopard bit really is just another way of saying it's got spots. That is unhelpful - why not say spotted and be done with it - while the name cactus pleco (as applied to the entire genus) is brilliant. I believe our German friends are responsible for this particular advancement of the hobby and may I say what a great common name! These fish are just downright spiky! They aren't safe to handle without gardening gloves on and the name cactus pleco perfectly and imaginatively (alright they're not green) describes the distinguishing features. We should all take note from that. Aquarists generally don't have the fun or privilege of thinking up scientific names but can excel at common names (without the academic research effort required to describe a species). Think of all the common names that really stick; (black lancer catfish, moustache catfish, banjo catfish and so on) these are all classy examples of the art.

Leopard Cactus Pleco is a good common name because it identifies the fish (at least down to a few species) and tells us a bit about it too. It has black spots, a tawny background and is spiky. Fair enough, but there is more to this fish than apt nomenclature.

The genus Pseudacanthicus is one of those which most aquarists would say is instantly recognisable but we can't easily say exactly why. Tying individual species down is yet more difficult. The genus was erected in 1862 and houses some species described as far back as 1840. That species was described from a drawing sent from the field and no one knows where exactly! Like many other pleco genera, most tropical South American rivers have their own Pseudacanthicus and many are very similar maybe variants of a theme. What makes this very confusing is that imports from very different parts of the amazon basin appear to contain identical fish while imports from the same locality can conversely show considerable variation. Even amongst the imports of P. leopardus you will find slight differences in colouration, spot intensity and fin colouration. A question mark even hangs over the identify of this species as it was described from a Guyanan river flowing north west into the Atlantic, not from the Rio Negro which flows into the Rio Amazonas proper. It must be said however that the northernmost reaches of the Rio Branco (which flows almost directly south into the Negro) rub shoulders with the Guyanan river system.

Large P. leopardus are magnificent animals, but will only reach such proportions given correct diet. Think of them as carrion feeders; they like nothing better than chopped mussel or dead fish. Green foods are also (reportedly - I have not seen this in my fish) accepted. You get the feeling that, only because nothing more challenging is on offer, that these fish will absent mindedly demolish vegetable matter presented. Looking at the long, well defined claw-like teeth nestled in the circular maw of these fish, you don't imagine cucumber to be naturally top of the menu somehow.

So, a great show fish and one that would be a really great challenge for the specialist Loricariid breeder.

P.S. If playing around with the star wars name generator use fish tank additives instead of supplements - I was Juldi Leedi, Lla Escort of Black Water Extract. It gets really weird if you start using fish scientific names too!!!

Pseudacanthicus leopardus Pseudacanthicus leopardus Pseudacanthicus leopardus Pseudacanthicus leopardus
Juvenile (50mm) Sub Adult (70mm) Sub Adult (90mm) Adult (200m)


Copyright information for the images used in this article can be found on the species' full Cat-eLog page.

Jump to next section Cat-eLog Data Sheet
Scientific NamePseudacanthicus cf. leopardus  Fowler, 1914
Common NamesLDA007, Leopard Cactus Pleco
L114, Demini Leopard Cactus Pleco
PronunciationSUE dah KAN thi cuss - leo parr duss
EtymologyPseud- Greek: False, Acanthicus - Greek: Spiny, Thorny. Literally "False Acanthicus" referring to this genus being similar to, yet different from, Acanthicus. This specific epithet literally means leopard (leopardus=leopard) and refers to its numerous spots.
Jump to next section Species Information
Size 240mm or 9.4" SL. Find near, nearer or same sized spp.
IdentificationA few colour forms exist, these are separate from L24 and L25 however. Some fish are more camel coloured than the more dark brown base colour. Additionally the reddish / orange colouration in the caudal fin varies with age as well as amongst individuals.
SexingMature males have considerably more odontodal growth on most fins rays but the pectorals are most adorned. Females fill out quite considerably in relation to the slender males.
Jump to next section Habitat Information
DistributionThe majority of specimens that enter the aquarium trade originate from the Rio Demini in the Rio Negro drainage, Brazil.
Amazon, Middle Amazon (Solimoes), Negro (click on these areas to find other species found there)
Amazon, Middle Amazon (Solimoes), Negro, Demini (click on these areas to find other species found there)
Show it on a map (Click the map-icon to show/hide map of species distribution)
pH5.6 - 7.0
Temperature24.0-28.0°C or 75.2-82.4°F (Show species within this range)
Other ParametersA black water fish, best kept in slightly acidic, softer water.
Jump to next section Husbandry Information
FeedingCarnivore although not a predator, prawns and chopped mussel appear favourites and promote favourable growth. Some vegetable should also be provided and thus balances diet.
FurniturePrefers a dimmer tank and requires a suitable sized cave.
CompatibilityGenerally peaceful but territorial from a young age. Some large specimens are aggressively territorial and may cause problems if housed with other large nocturnal fish.
Suggested TankmatesThe temptation with large tough Loricariids is to keep them with large, tough other fish such as Oscars or other brutish characters. This actually works quite well with most omnivorous or mainly vegetarian plecos. Pseudacanthicus however are big messy carnivores, but, like all large plecos, produce vast amounts of waste and as such would require monumental filtration to house alongside non-catfish ''equals''. It is better to think of these catfish as the centrepiece fish and stock their aquarium with medium sized (preferably omnivorous) fish. All sizes of barbs work surprisingly well.
BreedingHas been bred in the aquarium, the fish are sexually mature at about 170mm SL, see Shane's World article.
Jump to next section Further Information
ReferencesProc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.v. 66 - pp271 - Fig. 17
Aqualog matched DATZ and shows a nice range of juvenile, sub-adult and adult photos.
Registered Keepers(1) Cory-Diddi, (2) daniel60, (3) Daniel Machado, (4) Barbie (k: 3), (5) Trident2004, (6) Kimmy73b, (7) Lornek8, (8) soltarii007, (9) guyvw, (10) pureplecs, (11) stinger (p: 2), (12) FuglyDragon, (13) nettaigyo, (14) smithrc, (15) emma, (16) ripam, (17) barksten, (18) Cyberbob, (19) nuth88, (20) ani-mal-lvr (k: 3), (21) Caimenboy, (22) mikelouth (p: 2), (23) plugger1969, (24) Vierrollenfreak (k: 6), (25) Freakdaddy, (26) joepleco (k: 2), who also notes: "I love this fish! When my heater fried and melted the plastic and polluted the tank all my fish died except this one. My original is still at my parents house alive since 2000!", (27) andregurov, who also notes: "Very reticent to feed in lighted conditions, and very skittish", (28) trini_100, (29) simonas, (30) helshøj, (31) njfishguy (k: 3), who also notes: "I purchased three and one a few years ago and they now range from 3" to 5.5". They are housed in a 55g with a few cichlids and one L14 sunshine. Lost above fish in hurricaine sandy in 2012. Purchased several more in 2013 but L-600 this time. Currently have 3 young adults ranging 4 to 5". Keeping them separate in a 20g and two 55g tanks to grow out.", (32) doodle (k: 2), (33) haffiducki, (34) firenzenz, (35) SoCalDiscus (k: 3), (36) scatz, (37) calsonic, (38) ronsterrc, (39) joviman (k: 2), (40) Mikael_S, (41) zhallam, (42) Wraith (k: 4), (43) MONG, (44) junaid, (45) mrwickedweasel (k: 4), (46) skullymaster, (47) Dave Rinaldo, (48) CanadaPleco (k: 2), (49) Handels, (50) fleahound, (51) vman (k: 3), (52) Seaokoy, (53) Haavard Stoere (k: 14), (54) Juha, (55) shadowcat, (56) OlePaulsen (k: 16), (57) nowhereman, (58) MatsP, who also notes: "Got a "second hand" from the LFS. Small little fella.", (59) flatfish (k: 5), (60) justin_cu, (61) jprp, (62) Bjørn, (63) Gibbiceps (k: 2), (64) Elisabeth Dahl (k: 285), who also notes: "breeding group", (65) d3n2 (p: 2, k: 2), (66) alga, (67) nkm68, (68) 2wheelsx2, who also notes: "Replacement farmed fish from WetSpot after all my originals died. Growing out from 20 mm fish.", (69) Neri2495, (70) fishermandan, (71) dreed, (72) Daniel_yeo, (73) oli (k: 3), (74) oanes (k: 3), who also notes: "Very beautiful, very reclusive. All ~2.5" right now.", (75) electrophyste, (76) Kenny Tay (p: 2), (77) ChanggyChinggy, (78) Jatze, (79) MilkMan, (80) Firestorming (k: 2), (81) Steen (k: 3), (82) tony57, (83) rayfong, (84) sfchoong (p: 2, k: 8), who also notes: "3 inch to 5 inch", (85) john_d (k: 3), (86) allim (k: 6), (87) FunkyFredFrog, who also notes: "Just a stunning fish!", (88) plecomanpat, (89) aquaoahu, (90) andysfishhouse, (91) Profiel310 (p: 2), (92) upc239 (p: 2, k: 10), (93) Rita Aspevik (k: 2), (94) jac, who also notes: "Small juvenile about 5 cm.", (95) AquaristJoel, (96) smitty, (97) kouen, (98) stumac (k: 2), (99) dt23, (100) jvision (k: 3), (101) FFTRIP, (102) Ecrevince, (103) Decker504, (104) victionOne, (105) Jako, (106) Carter77, (107) lmt6600 (p: 2), (108) rroomm11 (k: 3), (109) Hapahound1971, (110) FrankNL, (111) 2poc, (112) Andypex (k: 3), who also notes: "In quarantine in this tank.", (113) fester, (114) Acanthicus, (115) ryuki, (116) MrGT500, (117) mikebren12, (118) jessonthenet, (119) l114, (120) rtyrolia, (121) chriscarnivorous, (122) pleco_breeder (k: 2), (123) rosswell, (124) jamos, (125) eyal8a (k: 4), (126) Michael_Wanga, (127) victoriaz24, (128) Loricariidea1990 (k: 3), (129) seriouslycichlids (k: 3), (130) sem87, (131) tagamasid1023 (p: 6, k: 6), who also notes: "Male. From 2.5 inches to 4 inches in 6 months.", "From 2.5 inches to 4 inches in 5 months.", "Alpha male. Biggest in the colony. Doubled in size, from 2.5 inches to 5 inches in 6 months.", "From 2.5 inches to 4.5 inches in 6 months.", (132) Cristoffer Forssander (k: 7), (133) STC (k: 8), (134) cardo (k: 8), (135) mcaquatic, (136) camtang (k: 2), (137) pleco rob, (138) PlecosAndLoaches, (139) jorgehdzy, (140) girema (k: 5), (141) Syno Rey, (142) edtam88, (143) playcos, (144) aX!o, (145) Simon86 (k: 4), (146) cjerrom, (147) andersonpe, (148) chaim76, (149) gilsharon, (150) summoner2183, (151) Brad Pleco Addict (k: 7), (152) PseudaSmart (k: 6), (153) Jdmcfast, (154) kaihan (k: 6), who also notes: "Still going strong, have seen spawningbehaviour, but no spawning to date.", (155) Chanin09 (k: 2), (156) Amazonka, who also notes: "During the first 3-4 months "invisible" in the tank, now he's the first to catch something to eat :) It's one of the smallest plecos that i have, but defo the strongest character :) Not shy at all, either very agressive. Anyway territorial fish, and sometimes fight with others, much bigger plecos tank mates. Usually as far as the food is concerned, but most of the time it just ends up chasing than causing any fin/skin tear or any serious injuries.", (157) gem400, (158) CodOnMyRod, (159) Natey22, (160) Torb (k: 2), (161) 7Pete, (162) Marcelo Antunes, (163) Mathias (k: 9), (164) Norbert (k: 5), (165) plecoed78, (166) fishdoc, (167) Turbito75 (p: 2, k: 600), who also notes: "My fry F1 L-114 Pseudocanthicus", (168) WouterW, (169) genghiskhanll, (170) yuran, (171) recumbent, (172) husky_jim, (173) RIFTLAKEAQUATICS (k: 30), (174) Clavius, (175) trafford_66, (176) Divinehammer, (177) SteveMcCroskey, (178) unstoppablejayd, (179) Heyguy74, (180) Gandalfdgrey, (181) Altifrons, (182) Fishfreaks1971, (183) JonathanReid, (184) TheDoctor, (185) j griffin, (186) ebakklan, (187) RafaelMatos, who also notes: "It is a very shy fish. It only gets out of its hideout at night. I feed mine with Sera Wheel-Chips and cooked shrimp, but I noticed it seems to prefer the Sera Whel-Chips.", (188) iceprincess, (189) Paul, (190) VickyEll7, (191) Koen (k: 3), (192) Redtailrob, (193) Jesnil72 (k: 4), (194) mdwflyer, (195) CyroXz, (196) DHarris, (197) Wyomingite (k: 2), (198) oldfish (k: 8), (199) xtro34, (200) Jborley, (201) reardons, who also notes: "It was approx. 50mm when purchased. It is the shyest of my plecos currently, and I only really see it around feeding time. It eats NLS Algaemax and shrimp pellets.", (202) PaperDoves (k: 3), who also notes: "Very shy so far, but I've only had them a few days. Eating well.", (203) Junglejason, (204) Phreeflow, (205) GeirO, (206) pleconut (k: 2), who also notes: "These plecos are totally awesome! New to me, and at first thought to both be males. But Within 6 weeks of purchase I found one to start becoming very plump around the middle, on closer inspection and asking around, I discovered I have a pair and a pair that are probably arleady involved in courtship! Were both put into thier own tank.", (207) fishyNZ, (208) mmccannon, (209) Fisk, (210) Moeller8444 (k: 2), (211) ren, (212) adelinoarrais, (213) DarrenG (p: 2), (214) kastokke, (215) David Rebillard, (216) Kajaha, (217) Jonna81, (218) Colinlock, (219) Nigel1995 (k: 3), who also notes: "Female tends to keep the male on a distance. Love hiding in shady spaces.", (220) Fiskebingen, (221) dmfd0331, (222) tonhocasti, (223) Steewen, (224) diesel (k: 2), (225) Calcium, (226) Tony4143 (k: 3), (227) Pastoral.

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Breeding Reports(1) rroomm11 (b: 58), (2) Cristoffer Forssander (b: 55), (3) OlePaulsen (b: 43), (4) Turbito75 (b: 38), (5) PseudaSmart (b: 10), (6) Mathias (b: 10).
Articles
Article - Shane's World Reproduction Breeding Pseudacanthicus leopardus
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Last Update2013 Jul 19 11:05 (species record created: 2002 Aug 01 11:22)

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