Phylogeny and historical biogeography of Trichomycterus from eastern Brazil

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Phylogeny and historical biogeography of Trichomycterus from eastern Brazil

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Vilardo, PJ, AM Katz & WJEM Costa, 2023. Phylogeny and historical biogeography of neotropical catfishes Trichomycterus (Siluriformes: Trichomycteridae) from eastern Brazil. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2023.107836.


The catfish subfamily Trichomycterinae is widely distributed in South America inhabiting several habitats, but specially mountain streams. Trichomycterus is the most speciose trichomycterid genus and recently due to his paraphyletic condition has been restricted to a clade from eastern Brazil called Trichomycterus sensu stricto comprising around 80 valid species distributed in seven areas of endemism of eastern Brazil. This paper aims to analyse the biogeographical events responsible for the distribution of Trichomycterus s.s., by reconstructing the ancestral data based on a time-calibrated multigene phylogeny. A multi-gene phylogeny was generated using 61 species of Trichomycterus s.s. and 30 outgroups, with divergence events calculated based on the estimated origin of Trichomycteridae. Two event-based analyses were applied to investigate the biogeographical events responsible the present distribution of Trichomycterus s.s. and suggest that the modern distribution of the group is a result of different vicariance and dispersal events. The diversification of Trichomycterus s.s. subgenera occurred in the Miocene, except for Megacambeva, with different biogeographical events shaping its distribution in eastern Brazil. An initial vicariant event split up the Fluminense ecoregion from the Northeastern Mata Atlantica + Paraíba do Sul + Fluminense + Ribeira do Iguape + Upper Paraná ecoregions. Dispersal events occurred mainly between Paraíba do Sul and neighboring river basins, with additional dispersal events from Northeastern Mata Atlantica to Paraíba do Sul, from São Francisco to Northeastern Mata Atlântica, and from Upper Paraná to São Francisco.
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