Adult and juvenile - showing contrast in pattern
Close-up of interopercular spines
Close-up of mouth
Close-up of mouth
Fry found living on submerged tree leaves
Habitat: Juveniles can be found on submerged wood
From the Rio Tinaco, Est. Cojedes, Venezuela
Pale colouration adopted by previously normally coloured individual.
Rio Apure, 72.7mm SL (ANSP198884)
|Cat-eLog Data Sheet|
|Scientific Name||Panaque nigrolineatus (Peters, 1877)|
|Common Names||L190, Royal Pleco
Schwarzlinien-Harnischwels (Germany), Stribet Sugemalle (Denmark)
|Type Locality||Guárico River at Calabozo, Apure River drainage, Guárico State, Venezuela.|
|Pronunciation||pan ah KAY. - nih GRO lin e AT us|
|Etymology||The generic epithet "panaque" is a Venezuelan common name for this fish. nigro = black; lineatus = lines or stripes alluding to the fishes black stripes.|
- CotM 1999 May
|Size||430mm or 16.9" SL. Find near, nearer or same sized spp.|
|Identification||The genus Panaque is identified by the teeth, which are spoon-shaped. This means that the teeth are noticeably wider at the tip than at the base. Other loricariidae have teeth that are similar width all the way from one end to the other. A second distinguishing feature is the lack of a buccal papilla, which is a "flap of skin" on the inside of the mouth. See pictures in this PDF on Pterygoplichthys.
These fish are imported in all sizes and in a number of colour forms. Interestingly the colour of the eye varies from bright orange to dull red. Although described from Venezuelan material, the colour forms that have given rise to L027 are from different locations such as the Rio Tocantins, Xingú and Tapajos, Brazil. It appears that the juveniles of Brazilian populations have solid or plain as opposed to barred caudal fin rays. So, a juvenile with barred caudal fin rays is from Colombian or Venezuelan stock.
|Sexing||Undocumented, although with most ancistrine plecos the genital papilla of the female is round and blunt, that of the male by comparison is smaller and pointed. It is not known at what size this method of sexing can be used on Royal Plecos.|
|Distribution||Wide distribution range from Colombia and Venezuela to South Central Amazon basin.
Amazon, Lower Amazon (click on these areas to find other species found there)
Amazon, Middle Amazon (Solimoes) (click on these areas to find other species found there)
Orinoco (click on these areas to find other species found there)
Orinoco, Middle Orinoco, Apure, Guarico (click on these areas to find other species found there)
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|pH||6.5 - 7.5|
|Temperature||22.0-30.0°C or 71.6-86°F (Show species within this range)|
|Feeding||Classic ''pleco diet'' of greens. Can be acclimatized onto most vegetables; tinned peas seem a favourite. The fish also appear to eat bogwood. Some prepared foods should also be offered to supplement this diet.|
|Furniture||Bogwood is essential - both for dietary reasons and because it seems to be the Royal Pleco's preferred hide-out - although any suitably sized dark refuge will be utilized. When larger, Royal Plecos will re-arrange the tank to their own liking; ensure rocks are well secured and cannot be toppled against the glass.|
|Compatibility||Territorial with conspecifics and other similarly sized catfish although otherwise peaceful with smaller fish. This fish can be a fussy feeder and only once it is feeding well should be mixed with large, boisterous fish.|
|Suggested Tankmates||Most community fish, this fish is very secretive and so you will want more active fish around to provide something to watch.|
|Breeding||No published information exists, but I have heard that the fish has been spawned in captivity using some form of tube in a large tank (approx. 125 US Gallons). A false dry season of two weeks (low, warm, still water) was used. Then the tank was topped off with cooler rainwater (refilling about 80%). Lots of meaty and veggie foods were offered. The pair spawned within days.|
|Breeding Reports||There is no breeding report.|
|Reference||Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1877, pp 471, Unnumbered pl. following p. 556.|
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|Last Update||2019 Sep 14 06:05 (species record created: 2001 May 05 00:00)|