Cteniloricaria is a genus of Neotropical armored catfishes belonging to the Loricariinae, currently including two valid species: C. platystoma and C. napova. Cteniloricaria platystoma is presently recorded across the main coastal drainages of the Guiana Shield, from the Sinnamary River, French Guiana, to the Essequibo River basin, Guyana, and is considered to be restricted to the region. Cteniloricaria napova is only known from its type locality at the headwaters of the Paru de Oeste River, Amazon basin, Sipaliwini Savannah, Trio Amerindian territory in Suriname, close to the Brazilian border. Based on a specimen of C. napova, captured in the Cuminapanema River, a tributary to the Curuá River, within Brazilian territory, the geographic distribution of the species and the genus is extended, representing the first record of Cteniloricaria in Brazil. The genusshows a disjoint distribution, and divergence between populations in the north-flowing coastal rivers of the Guianas and the south-flowing Amazon tributaries, and more recent headwater capture between south-flowing Amazon tributaries, may have played a key role in shaping its current distribution. Illustrations, diagnostic characters, morphometrics, description of the habitat where the new specimen was captured, extinction risk assessment, and a discussion of the distribution of the genus are provided.
- Keywords: Amazon basin, Armored catfish, Cuminapanema, Loricariinae, Range extension