Ancient genetic divergence in bumblebee catfish of the genus Pseudopimelodus

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Ancient genetic divergence in bumblebee catfish of the genus Pseudopimelodus

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Rangel-Medrano, J. D., Ortega-Lara, A., & Márquez, E. J. (2020). Ancient genetic divergence in bumblebee catfish of the genus Pseudopimelodus (Pseudopimelodidae: Siluriformes) from northwestern South America. PeerJ, 8, e9028. https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.9028

https://peerj.com/articles/9028/
Abstract

Pseudopimelodus is a Neotropical genus of bumblebee catfish, composed of four valid species occurring in both trans- and cis-Andean rivers of South America. The orogeny of the Andes has led to diversification in the genus Pseudopimelodus in Colombia. This study analyzed partial sequences of mitochondrial cox1 and nuclear rag2 genes to test the hypothesis that the species, nominally recognized as P. schultzi and P. bufonius in Colombia, correspond to more than two different evolutionary lineages. Results indicate high levels of genetic divergence among individuals of nominal P. schultzi and P. bufonius, from trans- and cis-Andean basins in Colombia. In addition, five divergent lineages of Pseudopimelodus were confidently delimited by using a single-locus species-discovery approach and confirmed by species tree analyses. Additionally, molecular-clock dating showed that most diversification processes in Pseudopimelodus took place during the Miocene, when Andean tectonic evolution was occurring in northwestern South America. The present study provides, for the first time, phylogeographic insight into this Neotropical genus.
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Figure 1: Sampling localities of Pseudopimelodus species in different trans- and cis-Andean rivers in Colombia. Hydrographical sub-zones are denoted by colored circles : Magdalena River-upper sector (dark blue), Magdalena River middle and lower sectors, Cauca River- lower sectors and San Jorge River (purple), Cauca River-upper and middle sectors (light blue), Caribbean drainage - Atrato River and Sinú River (red), Amazon River basin (yellow), Orinoco River basin (orange). Location of Antioquian Plateau in the northern Central Cordillera (solid square), Garzón Massif at the southern tip of the Eastern Cordillera (doted rectangle) and Vaupés Arch (white dashed line) are shown. Map image layer by NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI).
Figure 1: Sampling localities of Pseudopimelodus species in different trans- and cis-Andean rivers in Colombia. Hydrographical sub-zones are denoted by colored circles : Magdalena River-upper sector (dark blue), Magdalena River middle and lower sectors, Cauca River- lower sectors and San Jorge River (purple), Cauca River-upper and middle sectors (light blue), Caribbean drainage - Atrato River and Sinú River (red), Amazon River basin (yellow), Orinoco River basin (orange). Location of Antioquian Plateau in the northern Central Cordillera (solid square), Garzón Massif at the southern tip of the Eastern Cordillera (doted rectangle) and Vaupés Arch (white dashed line) are shown. Map image layer by NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI).
Figure 2: Single Locus Species Discovery Analysis showing the Maximum clade credibility tree from BEAST. Bayesian posterior probabilities above 0.95 are shown as dark nodes. Point estimate species delimitations are shown by method as colored boxes. The tree was presented using the ggtree_1.6.11 package (Yu et al., 2016).
Figure 2: Single Locus Species Discovery Analysis showing the Maximum clade credibility tree from BEAST. Bayesian posterior probabilities above 0.95 are shown as dark nodes. Point estimate species delimitations are shown by method as colored boxes. The tree was presented using the ggtree_1.6.11 package (Yu et al., 2016).
Figure 4: Dated species tree of the family Pseudopimelodidae generated using StarBEAST2. Vertical dashed blue, black and grey lines indicates uplift of the Antioqueño Plateau, Vaupés Arch and Eastern Cordillera, respectively. Calibrated nodes are denoted by a black circle; time in mya is indicated by the scale bar.
Figure 4: Dated species tree of the family Pseudopimelodidae generated using StarBEAST2. Vertical dashed blue, black and grey lines indicates uplift of the Antioqueño Plateau, Vaupés Arch and Eastern Cordillera, respectively. Calibrated nodes are denoted by a black circle; time in mya is indicated by the scale bar.
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