https://link.springer.com/article/10.10 ... 20-05542-z
This review compiles and discusses the use of genetic markers applied in the study of the fish genus Hypostomus Lacépède, 1803 (Siluriformes: Loricariidae). The database comprises 51 peer-review articles that were published in the last 52 years (1968–2020) and that approach analysis based on different classes of genetic markers. The use of cytogenetic and enzymatic markers was predominantly especially in population studies with the genus Hypostomus, while mitochondrial markers were the majority in phylogenetic studies. Although significant methodological advances have occurred for molecular evaluation, they are still modestly applied to the study of neotropical fish genera, in which Hypostomus is included. New perspectives, especially on integrative approaches, are needed to improve our knowledge of the genetic functionality of fishes.