Banjo cat identification

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Casscats
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Banjo cat identification

Post by Casscats »

Hey sorry it's missnoodle, I got logged off my account and my password wasn't working and then it wouldn't send me an email to reset my password X_X

I'm picking up a banjo cat from a local, exact species I don't know.

This is the picture they posted of it, but I will get new photos once it is in my possession.
dc3a65c4-3410-424e-8a2c-03f1c836cff213.jpg
They've had it for about 5-6 months, bought unlabeled, and it is about 2 inches they said.

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Casscats
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Re: Banjo cat identification

Post by Casscats »

Photos at home now
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Re: Banjo cat identification

Post by aquaholic »

If your contemplating breeding
I would buy at least ten fish at once especially if your unsure what species/variant it is.
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Re: Banjo cat identification

Post by Casscats »

aquaholic wrote: 30 Apr 2023, 01:38 If your contemplating breeding
I would buy at least ten fish at once especially if your unsure what species/variant it is.
Not looking to breed, just to keep.

Banjos of any kind are rare in my area, a local was selling just this baby here. They're very hard to come by, even online ordering is hit or miss where to even find them.
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Re: Banjo cat identification

Post by Casscats »

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Re: Banjo cat identification

Post by bekateen »

Hi missnoodle,

For identification, here's a link to an older post with a key to the species of .

Cheers, Eric
bekateen wrote: 03 Jan 2017, 21:57 This key is reprinted from a 2008 doctoral dissertation (here, in the Dissertations Sticky) (and Google translated from Portuguese). It is not fully accurate because some of the taxonomic species are invalid, but it may be very helpful in sorting fish. Also, this key presents several new species, but I do not know how they might align with recently described Bunocephalus and Pseudobunocephalus; I expect that some of these undescribed species are now described. Perhaps the locality data included in the keys below can help align the "sp. nov." with recently described species.


There are two keys presented here. The first deals only with , excluding one species. The second key combines with .


Genus (Cardoso, pp. 131-132)
Diagnosis:
Non-exclusive synapomorphies:
4 (1) Frontal shape: long and wide;
25 (1) Ossicles of the lateral line: ossicles formed by simple tubes and with small thorns;
62 (1) Proximal margin of posterior kerato-hyal: expanded;
116 (0) Length of the first radius of the dorsal fin: less than the first branched radius of the dorsal fin.

Genus and (Cardoso considered them synonymous; Cardoso, pp. 149-150)
Diagnosis:
Exclusive synapomorphies:
(3) Metapterigoid size: too small.
Non-exclusive synapomorphies:
67 (1) Uro-hial in dorsal view: no laminar expansions;
92 (0) Bifid spines: absent.


Identification key for species, excluding (Cardoso, pp. 132-133)

1. Ventral process of the very short scapulo-coracoid (maximum of 14.5% CP) .................... 2.
1'. Ventral process of the long scapulo-coracoid (above 14.5% CP) .................... 3.

2. Absence of the epiphysial bar; With two bony tubers in the posterior portion of the supra-occipital .................... Ihering (Paraná River basin - Brazil)
2'. Presence of the epiphysial bar; Neurocrânio without adornments .................... Steindachner (West of the Amazonas River basin - Colombia, Ecuador and Peru)

3. Ventral process of the long scapulo-coracoid (less than 20.0% CP) .................... 5.
3'. Ventral process of the scapulo-coracoid very long (greater than 22.3-30.2% CP; Fig. 66), almost reaching the origin of the pelvic fin .................... 4.

4. Neurochannel ornamented by five pairs of turbines and three odd dorsal blade; Anal fin with six rays; Head height (73.1-92.7% CC); Last dorsal fin radius completely connected to the back .................... Walbaum (Guiana and Amazonas rivers - Brazil, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru and Suriname)
4'. Neurochannel ornamented by a tuber in the median nuchal plate; Anal fin with seven to eight rays; Head height (45.9-67.0% CC); The last ray of the dorsal fin with only a small membrane connecting it to the back .................... Cope (Basin of the Amazonas River - Brazil, Peru and Bolivia)

5. Pectoral fin spine without serratus in its anterior portion forthcoming .................... 6.
5'. Pectoral fin spine with a strong serratus in its anterior portion forthcoming .................... 9.

6. Thorn of the pectoral fin very long, its length is equivalent to the measure between the tip of the muzzle up to 1/3 of its own length; Maxillary bark beyond the origin of the thorn, being able to reach half of the thorn of the pectoralis .................... Cope (Amazonas basin and Orinoco basin - Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela).
6'. Thorn of short pectoral fin, its length is the measure between the tip of the muzzle to its origin .................... 7.

7. 36 to 37 vertebrae .................... Eigenmann (Atrato and Magdalena river basin - Colombia).
7'. 34 to 35 vertebrae .................... 8.

8. Presence of a laminar expansion in the anterior margin of the hypo-hyal; Presence of bone interdigitations between the ventral hypo-hyal and the kerato-hyal previous .................... Eigenmann (Coastal rivers of the Orinoco River and Amazonas - Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname And Venezuela).
8'. Absence of a laminar expansion in the anterior margin of the hypo-hyal; absence of bone interdigitations between the ventral hypo-hyal and the kerato-hyal previous .................... Hoedeman (Orinoco River basin - Venezuela, French Guiana)

9. Lateral line reaching the base of the origin of the flow; Narrow epiphysial bar; Portion distal from the fifth unexpanded vertebra; Small metapterigoid; 34-35 vertebrae .................... Boulenger (Uruguay River basin and Paraná-Paraguay - Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay).
9'. Lateral line reaching until near the base of the origin of the flow; Epiphysial bar very wide; Distal portion of the fifth expanded vertebra, giving the shape of an ax; Large metapterigoid; 32 vertebrae .................... Sp. Nov. (Patos Lagoon System, Brazil) (EDIT: Perhaps this "sp. nov" = ; the location is about right)

HERE IS THE UNTRANSLATED KEY:
Chave de identificação para as espécies de Bunocephalus

1. Processo ventral do escápulo-coracóide muito curto (máximo de 14,5 % CP) .................... 2.
1’. Processo ventral do escápulo-coracóide longo (acima de 14,5 % CP).................... 3.

2. Ausência da barra epifísial; neurocrânio ornamentado com dois tubérculos ósseos na porção posterior do supra-occipital .................... B. larai Ihering (bacia do rio Paraná - Brasil)
2’. Presença da barra epifísial; neurocrânio sem ornamentações .................... B. knerii Steindachner (oeste da bacia do rio Amazonas - Colômbia, Equador e Peru)

3. Processo ventral do escápulo-coracóide longo (menor do que 20,0 % CP).................... 5.
3’. Processo ventral do escápulo-coracóide muito longo (maior do que 22,3-30,2 % CP; Fig. 66), quase alcançando a origem da nadadeira pélvica .................... 4.

4. Neurocrânio ornamentado por cinco pares de turbérculos e mais três impares na lâmina dorsal; nadadeira anal com seis raios; altura da cabeça (73,1-92,7 % CC); último raio da nadadeira dorsal completamente ligado ao dorso .................... B. verrucosus Walbaum (rios da Guiana e do Amazonas - Brasil, Equador, Guiana, Peru e Suriname)
4’. Neurocrânio ornamentado por um tubérculo na placa nucal mediana; nadadeira anal com sete a oito raios; altura da cabeça (45,9-67,0 % CC); último raio da nadadeiradorsal com apenas uma pequena membrana que o liga ao dorso .................... B. coracoideus Cope (bacia do rio Amazonas - Brasil, Peru e Bolívia)

5. Espinho da nadadeira peitoral sem serrilha na sua porção anterior próximal .................... 6.
5’. Espinho da nadadeira peitoral com uma forte serrilha na sua porção anterior próximal .................... 9.

6. Espinho da nadadeira peitoral muito longo, seu comprimento equivale a medida entre a ponta do focinho até um 1/3 do seu próprio comprimento; barbilhão maxilar ultrapassando a origem do espinho, podendo chegar até a metade do espinho da peitoral .................... B. aleuropsis Cope (bacia do rio Amazonas e Orinoco - Brasil, Colômbia, Equador, Peru e Venezuela).
6’. Espinho da nadadeira peitoral curto, seu comprimento equivale a medida entre a ponta do focinho até sua origem .................... 7.

7. 36 a 37 vértebras .................... B. colombianus Eigenmann (bacia do rio Atrato e Magdalena - Colômbia).
7’. 34 a 35 vértebras .................... 8.

8. Presença de uma expansão laminar na margem anterior do hipo-hial; presença de interdigitações ósseas entre o hipo-hial ventral e o cerato-hial anterior .................... B. amaurus Eigenmann (rios costeiros do rio Orinoco e Amazonas - Brasil, Guiana Francesa, Guiana, Suriname e Venezuela).
8’. Ausência de uma expansão laminar na margem anterior do hipo-hial; ausência de interdigitações ósseas entre o hipo-hial ventral e o cerato-hial anterior .................... B. aloikae Hoedeman (bacia do rio Orinoco - Venezuela, Guiana Francesa)

9. Linha lateral alcançando a base da origem da caudal; barra epifísial estreita; porção distal da quinta vértebra não expandida; metapterigóide pequeno; 34 a 35 vértebras .................... B. doriae Boulenger (bacia do rio Uruguai e Paraná-Paraguai - Argentina, Brasil, Paraguai, Uruguai).
9’. Linha lateral alcançando até próximo a base da origem da caudal; barra epifísial muito larga; porção distal da quinta vértebra expandida, dando a forma de um machado; metapterigóide grande; 32 vértebras .................... Bunocephalus sp. nov. (Sistema da Laguna dos Patos, Brasil).
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

In this key, Cardoso combines and one into Acanthobunocephalus, but these are not considered valid. The valid identifications are: Identification key for species (Cardoso, pp. 150-151)

1. Present epiphysial bar .................... 2.
1'. Absent epiphysial bar .................... 4.

2. First dorsal fin element (spinelet) present .................... Friel (Sinapo river, Venezuela)
2'. First dorsal fin element (spinelet) absent .................... 3.

3. Complete lateral line; Horizontal vertebral blade present; Caudal fin with nine rays .................... Eigenmann (Essequibo River basin - Guyana)
3'. Incomplete lateral line; Horizontal vertebral blade absent; Caudal fin with lightning .................... Friel (Orinoco River basin, Colombia and Venezuela)

4. Caudal fin with ten rays; Horizontal vertebral blade absent .................... 5.
4'. Caudal fin with nine rays; Horizontal vertebral blade present .................... sp. Nov. 1. (São Francisco Basin - Brazil)

5. Last ray of the dorsal fin attached to the back by only a small membrane; Spine of the pectoral fin with serratus in its anterior portion .................... 6.
5'. Last ray of the dorsal fin fully attached to the back; Thorn pectoral fin without serratus in its anterior portion .................... sp. Nov. 2 (São Francisco Basin - Brazil)

6. Bifid Mental Barbels .................... 7.
6'. Simple Mental Barbels .................... 9.

7. Four-spoke (I + 3) doral fin .................... Boulenger (Coastal rivers of southern and southeastern Brazil, Jacui, Uruguay and Paraná-Paraguay - Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay)
7'. Dorsal fin with five rays (I + 4) .................... 8.

8. Present infraorbital (at least 1); 12 gill filaments in the first arch gill .................... Eigenmann: in Eigenmann & Allen (Amanzonas River - Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador and Peru)
8'. Missing infraorbital; 14-15 Gill filaments in first arch gill .................... sp. Nov. 3. (Tocantins River, Tocantins)

9. Pectoral fin with five rays (i + 4) .................... Mees (Upper Amazonas River - Peru)
9'. 6-spoke pectoral fin (i + 5) .................... 10.

10. Missing infraorbital; 11 Gill filaments in first arch gill .................... Eigenmann & Kennedy (Paraná-Paraguay River - Brazil and Paraguay)
10'. Infraorbital present (at least 1); 12-14 gill filaments in the first gill arch .................... 11.

11. Bone ornamentation in the present skull; Anterior portion of the supra-occipital concave .................... Mees (Rivers of the Amazonas - Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador and Peru)
11'. Bone ornamentation in the absent skull; Anterior portion of the supra-occipital convex or straight .................... sp. Nov. 4. (Beni-Bolivia)

HERE IS THE UNTRANSLATED KEY:
Chave de identificação para as espécies de Acanthobunocephalus

1. Barra epifisial presente .................... 2.
1’. Barra epifisial ausente .................... 4.

2. Primeiro elemento da nadadeira dorsal (spinelet) presente .................... A. nicoi Friel (rio Sinapo, Venezuela)
2’. Primeiro elemento da nadadeira dorsal (spinelet) ausente .................... 3.

3. Linha lateral completa; lâmina horizontal vertebral presente; nadadeira caudal com nove raios .................... A. chamaizelus Eigenmann (bacia do rio Essequibo - Guiana)
3’. Linha lateral incompleta; lâmina horizontal vertebral ausente; nadadeira caudal com des raios .................... Acanthobunocephalus “l” sp. nov. (bacia do rio Orinoco, Colômbia e Venezuela)

4. Nadadeira caudal com dez raios; lâmina horizontal vertebral ausente .................... 5.
4’. Nadadeira caudal com nove raios; lâmina horizontal vertebral presente .................... Acanthobunocephalus sp. nov. 1. (bacia do São Francisco - Brasil)

5. Último raio da nadadeira dorsal unido ao dorso por apenas uma pequena membrana; espinho da nadadeira peitoral com serrilha na sua porção anterior .................... 6.
5’. Último raio da nadadeira dorsal completamente unido ao dorso; espinho da nadadeira peitoral sem serrilha na sua porção anterior .................... Acanthobunocephalus sp. nov. 2 (bacia do São Francisco - Brasil)

6. Barbilhões mentonianos bífidos .................... 7.
6’. Barbilhões mentonianos simples .................... 9.

7. Nadadeira doral com quatro raios (I+3) .................... A. iheringii Boulenger (rios costeiros do sul e sudeste do Brasil, Jacui, Uruguai e Paraná-Paraguay - Argentina, Brasil, Paraguai e Uruguai)
7’. Nadadeira dorsal com cinco raios (I+4) .................... 8.

8. Infraorbitais presentes (pelo menos 1); 12 filamentos branquiais no primeiro arco branquial .................... A. bifidus Eigenmann: in Eigenmann & Allen (rio Amanzonas - Bolivia, Brasil, Equador e Peru)
8’. Infraorbitais ausentes; 14-15 filamentos branquiais no primeiro arco branquial .................... Acanthobunocephalus sp. nov. 3. (rio Tocantins, Tocantins)

9. Nadadeira peitoral com cinco raios (i+4) .................... A. quadriradiatus Mees (alto rio Amazonas - Peru)
9’. Nadadeira peitoral com seis raios (i+5) .................... 10.

10. Infraorbitais ausentes; 11 filamentos branquiais no primeiro arco branquial .................... A. rugosus Eigenmann & Kennedy (rio Paraná-Paraguai - Brasil e Paraguai)
10’. Infraorbitais presentes (pelo menos 1); 12-14 filamentos branquiais no primeiro arco branquial .................... 11.

11. Ornamentação óssea no crânio presente; porção anterior do supra-occipital côncava .................... A. amazonicus Mees (rios do Amazonas - Bolivia, Brasil, Equador e Peru)
11’. Ornamentação óssea no crânio ausente; porção anterior do supra-occipital convexa ou reta .................... Acanthobunocephalus sp. nov. 4. (Beni-Bolivia)
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Casscats
Posts: 46
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Re: Banjo cat identification

Post by Casscats »

bekateen wrote: 30 Apr 2023, 11:37 Hi missnoodle,

For identification, here's a link to an older post with a key to the species of .

Cheers, Eric
bekateen wrote: 03 Jan 2017, 21:57 This key is reprinted from a 2008 doctoral dissertation (here, in the Dissertations Sticky) (and Google translated from Portuguese). It is not fully accurate because some of the taxonomic species are invalid, but it may be very helpful in sorting fish. Also, this key presents several new species, but I do not know how they might align with recently described Bunocephalus and Pseudobunocephalus; I expect that some of these undescribed species are now described. Perhaps the locality data included in the keys below can help align the "sp. nov." with recently described species.


There are two keys presented here. The first deals only with , excluding one species. The second key combines with .


Genus (Cardoso, pp. 131-132)
Diagnosis:
Non-exclusive synapomorphies:
4 (1) Frontal shape: long and wide;
25 (1) Ossicles of the lateral line: ossicles formed by simple tubes and with small thorns;
62 (1) Proximal margin of posterior kerato-hyal: expanded;
116 (0) Length of the first radius of the dorsal fin: less than the first branched radius of the dorsal fin.

Genus and (Cardoso considered them synonymous; Cardoso, pp. 149-150)
Diagnosis:
Exclusive synapomorphies:
(3) Metapterigoid size: too small.
Non-exclusive synapomorphies:
67 (1) Uro-hial in dorsal view: no laminar expansions;
92 (0) Bifid spines: absent.


Identification key for species, excluding (Cardoso, pp. 132-133)

1. Ventral process of the very short scapulo-coracoid (maximum of 14.5% CP) .................... 2.
1'. Ventral process of the long scapulo-coracoid (above 14.5% CP) .................... 3.

2. Absence of the epiphysial bar; With two bony tubers in the posterior portion of the supra-occipital .................... Ihering (Paraná River basin - Brazil)
2'. Presence of the epiphysial bar; Neurocrânio without adornments .................... Steindachner (West of the Amazonas River basin - Colombia, Ecuador and Peru)

3. Ventral process of the long scapulo-coracoid (less than 20.0% CP) .................... 5.
3'. Ventral process of the scapulo-coracoid very long (greater than 22.3-30.2% CP; Fig. 66), almost reaching the origin of the pelvic fin .................... 4.

4. Neurochannel ornamented by five pairs of turbines and three odd dorsal blade; Anal fin with six rays; Head height (73.1-92.7% CC); Last dorsal fin radius completely connected to the back .................... Walbaum (Guiana and Amazonas rivers - Brazil, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru and Suriname)
4'. Neurochannel ornamented by a tuber in the median nuchal plate; Anal fin with seven to eight rays; Head height (45.9-67.0% CC); The last ray of the dorsal fin with only a small membrane connecting it to the back .................... Cope (Basin of the Amazonas River - Brazil, Peru and Bolivia)

5. Pectoral fin spine without serratus in its anterior portion forthcoming .................... 6.
5'. Pectoral fin spine with a strong serratus in its anterior portion forthcoming .................... 9.

6. Thorn of the pectoral fin very long, its length is equivalent to the measure between the tip of the muzzle up to 1/3 of its own length; Maxillary bark beyond the origin of the thorn, being able to reach half of the thorn of the pectoralis .................... Cope (Amazonas basin and Orinoco basin - Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela).
6'. Thorn of short pectoral fin, its length is the measure between the tip of the muzzle to its origin .................... 7.

7. 36 to 37 vertebrae .................... Eigenmann (Atrato and Magdalena river basin - Colombia).
7'. 34 to 35 vertebrae .................... 8.

8. Presence of a laminar expansion in the anterior margin of the hypo-hyal; Presence of bone interdigitations between the ventral hypo-hyal and the kerato-hyal previous .................... Eigenmann (Coastal rivers of the Orinoco River and Amazonas - Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname And Venezuela).
8'. Absence of a laminar expansion in the anterior margin of the hypo-hyal; absence of bone interdigitations between the ventral hypo-hyal and the kerato-hyal previous .................... Hoedeman (Orinoco River basin - Venezuela, French Guiana)

9. Lateral line reaching the base of the origin of the flow; Narrow epiphysial bar; Portion distal from the fifth unexpanded vertebra; Small metapterigoid; 34-35 vertebrae .................... Boulenger (Uruguay River basin and Paraná-Paraguay - Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay).
9'. Lateral line reaching until near the base of the origin of the flow; Epiphysial bar very wide; Distal portion of the fifth expanded vertebra, giving the shape of an ax; Large metapterigoid; 32 vertebrae .................... Sp. Nov. (Patos Lagoon System, Brazil) (EDIT: Perhaps this "sp. nov" = ; the location is about right)

HERE IS THE UNTRANSLATED KEY:
Chave de identificação para as espécies de Bunocephalus

1. Processo ventral do escápulo-coracóide muito curto (máximo de 14,5 % CP) .................... 2.
1’. Processo ventral do escápulo-coracóide longo (acima de 14,5 % CP).................... 3.

2. Ausência da barra epifísial; neurocrânio ornamentado com dois tubérculos ósseos na porção posterior do supra-occipital .................... B. larai Ihering (bacia do rio Paraná - Brasil)
2’. Presença da barra epifísial; neurocrânio sem ornamentações .................... B. knerii Steindachner (oeste da bacia do rio Amazonas - Colômbia, Equador e Peru)

3. Processo ventral do escápulo-coracóide longo (menor do que 20,0 % CP).................... 5.
3’. Processo ventral do escápulo-coracóide muito longo (maior do que 22,3-30,2 % CP; Fig. 66), quase alcançando a origem da nadadeira pélvica .................... 4.

4. Neurocrânio ornamentado por cinco pares de turbérculos e mais três impares na lâmina dorsal; nadadeira anal com seis raios; altura da cabeça (73,1-92,7 % CC); último raio da nadadeira dorsal completamente ligado ao dorso .................... B. verrucosus Walbaum (rios da Guiana e do Amazonas - Brasil, Equador, Guiana, Peru e Suriname)
4’. Neurocrânio ornamentado por um tubérculo na placa nucal mediana; nadadeira anal com sete a oito raios; altura da cabeça (45,9-67,0 % CC); último raio da nadadeiradorsal com apenas uma pequena membrana que o liga ao dorso .................... B. coracoideus Cope (bacia do rio Amazonas - Brasil, Peru e Bolívia)

5. Espinho da nadadeira peitoral sem serrilha na sua porção anterior próximal .................... 6.
5’. Espinho da nadadeira peitoral com uma forte serrilha na sua porção anterior próximal .................... 9.

6. Espinho da nadadeira peitoral muito longo, seu comprimento equivale a medida entre a ponta do focinho até um 1/3 do seu próprio comprimento; barbilhão maxilar ultrapassando a origem do espinho, podendo chegar até a metade do espinho da peitoral .................... B. aleuropsis Cope (bacia do rio Amazonas e Orinoco - Brasil, Colômbia, Equador, Peru e Venezuela).
6’. Espinho da nadadeira peitoral curto, seu comprimento equivale a medida entre a ponta do focinho até sua origem .................... 7.

7. 36 a 37 vértebras .................... B. colombianus Eigenmann (bacia do rio Atrato e Magdalena - Colômbia).
7’. 34 a 35 vértebras .................... 8.

8. Presença de uma expansão laminar na margem anterior do hipo-hial; presença de interdigitações ósseas entre o hipo-hial ventral e o cerato-hial anterior .................... B. amaurus Eigenmann (rios costeiros do rio Orinoco e Amazonas - Brasil, Guiana Francesa, Guiana, Suriname e Venezuela).
8’. Ausência de uma expansão laminar na margem anterior do hipo-hial; ausência de interdigitações ósseas entre o hipo-hial ventral e o cerato-hial anterior .................... B. aloikae Hoedeman (bacia do rio Orinoco - Venezuela, Guiana Francesa)

9. Linha lateral alcançando a base da origem da caudal; barra epifísial estreita; porção distal da quinta vértebra não expandida; metapterigóide pequeno; 34 a 35 vértebras .................... B. doriae Boulenger (bacia do rio Uruguai e Paraná-Paraguai - Argentina, Brasil, Paraguai, Uruguai).
9’. Linha lateral alcançando até próximo a base da origem da caudal; barra epifísial muito larga; porção distal da quinta vértebra expandida, dando a forma de um machado; metapterigóide grande; 32 vértebras .................... Bunocephalus sp. nov. (Sistema da Laguna dos Patos, Brasil).
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

In this key, Cardoso combines and one into Acanthobunocephalus, but these are not considered valid. The valid identifications are: Identification key for species (Cardoso, pp. 150-151)

1. Present epiphysial bar .................... 2.
1'. Absent epiphysial bar .................... 4.

2. First dorsal fin element (spinelet) present .................... Friel (Sinapo river, Venezuela)
2'. First dorsal fin element (spinelet) absent .................... 3.

3. Complete lateral line; Horizontal vertebral blade present; Caudal fin with nine rays .................... Eigenmann (Essequibo River basin - Guyana)
3'. Incomplete lateral line; Horizontal vertebral blade absent; Caudal fin with lightning .................... Friel (Orinoco River basin, Colombia and Venezuela)

4. Caudal fin with ten rays; Horizontal vertebral blade absent .................... 5.
4'. Caudal fin with nine rays; Horizontal vertebral blade present .................... sp. Nov. 1. (São Francisco Basin - Brazil)

5. Last ray of the dorsal fin attached to the back by only a small membrane; Spine of the pectoral fin with serratus in its anterior portion .................... 6.
5'. Last ray of the dorsal fin fully attached to the back; Thorn pectoral fin without serratus in its anterior portion .................... sp. Nov. 2 (São Francisco Basin - Brazil)

6. Bifid Mental Barbels .................... 7.
6'. Simple Mental Barbels .................... 9.

7. Four-spoke (I + 3) doral fin .................... Boulenger (Coastal rivers of southern and southeastern Brazil, Jacui, Uruguay and Paraná-Paraguay - Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay)
7'. Dorsal fin with five rays (I + 4) .................... 8.

8. Present infraorbital (at least 1); 12 gill filaments in the first arch gill .................... Eigenmann: in Eigenmann & Allen (Amanzonas River - Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador and Peru)
8'. Missing infraorbital; 14-15 Gill filaments in first arch gill .................... sp. Nov. 3. (Tocantins River, Tocantins)

9. Pectoral fin with five rays (i + 4) .................... Mees (Upper Amazonas River - Peru)
9'. 6-spoke pectoral fin (i + 5) .................... 10.

10. Missing infraorbital; 11 Gill filaments in first arch gill .................... Eigenmann & Kennedy (Paraná-Paraguay River - Brazil and Paraguay)
10'. Infraorbital present (at least 1); 12-14 gill filaments in the first gill arch .................... 11.

11. Bone ornamentation in the present skull; Anterior portion of the supra-occipital concave .................... Mees (Rivers of the Amazonas - Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador and Peru)
11'. Bone ornamentation in the absent skull; Anterior portion of the supra-occipital convex or straight .................... sp. Nov. 4. (Beni-Bolivia)

HERE IS THE UNTRANSLATED KEY:
Chave de identificação para as espécies de Acanthobunocephalus

1. Barra epifisial presente .................... 2.
1’. Barra epifisial ausente .................... 4.

2. Primeiro elemento da nadadeira dorsal (spinelet) presente .................... A. nicoi Friel (rio Sinapo, Venezuela)
2’. Primeiro elemento da nadadeira dorsal (spinelet) ausente .................... 3.

3. Linha lateral completa; lâmina horizontal vertebral presente; nadadeira caudal com nove raios .................... A. chamaizelus Eigenmann (bacia do rio Essequibo - Guiana)
3’. Linha lateral incompleta; lâmina horizontal vertebral ausente; nadadeira caudal com des raios .................... Acanthobunocephalus “l” sp. nov. (bacia do rio Orinoco, Colômbia e Venezuela)

4. Nadadeira caudal com dez raios; lâmina horizontal vertebral ausente .................... 5.
4’. Nadadeira caudal com nove raios; lâmina horizontal vertebral presente .................... Acanthobunocephalus sp. nov. 1. (bacia do São Francisco - Brasil)

5. Último raio da nadadeira dorsal unido ao dorso por apenas uma pequena membrana; espinho da nadadeira peitoral com serrilha na sua porção anterior .................... 6.
5’. Último raio da nadadeira dorsal completamente unido ao dorso; espinho da nadadeira peitoral sem serrilha na sua porção anterior .................... Acanthobunocephalus sp. nov. 2 (bacia do São Francisco - Brasil)

6. Barbilhões mentonianos bífidos .................... 7.
6’. Barbilhões mentonianos simples .................... 9.

7. Nadadeira doral com quatro raios (I+3) .................... A. iheringii Boulenger (rios costeiros do sul e sudeste do Brasil, Jacui, Uruguai e Paraná-Paraguay - Argentina, Brasil, Paraguai e Uruguai)
7’. Nadadeira dorsal com cinco raios (I+4) .................... 8.

8. Infraorbitais presentes (pelo menos 1); 12 filamentos branquiais no primeiro arco branquial .................... A. bifidus Eigenmann: in Eigenmann & Allen (rio Amanzonas - Bolivia, Brasil, Equador e Peru)
8’. Infraorbitais ausentes; 14-15 filamentos branquiais no primeiro arco branquial .................... Acanthobunocephalus sp. nov. 3. (rio Tocantins, Tocantins)

9. Nadadeira peitoral com cinco raios (i+4) .................... A. quadriradiatus Mees (alto rio Amazonas - Peru)
9’. Nadadeira peitoral com seis raios (i+5) .................... 10.

10. Infraorbitais ausentes; 11 filamentos branquiais no primeiro arco branquial .................... A. rugosus Eigenmann & Kennedy (rio Paraná-Paraguai - Brasil e Paraguai)
10’. Infraorbitais presentes (pelo menos 1); 12-14 filamentos branquiais no primeiro arco branquial .................... 11.

11. Ornamentação óssea no crânio presente; porção anterior do supra-occipital côncava .................... A. amazonicus Mees (rios do Amazonas - Bolivia, Brasil, Equador e Peru)
11’. Ornamentação óssea no crânio ausente; porção anterior do supra-occipital convexa ou reta .................... Acanthobunocephalus sp. nov. 4. (Beni-Bolivia)
Is there a guide to the names of the anatomy?

Just in case...

Otherwise I think perhaps I am looking at bunocephalus larai?
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Re: Banjo cat identification

Post by Jools »

Casscats wrote: 29 Apr 2023, 22:25 Hey sorry it's missnoodle, I got logged off my account and my password wasn't working and then it wouldn't send me an email to reset my password X_X
Drop me an email or PM and I will help get you back into your account. There is a lot of history there, so perhaps would be a good thing to do!

Cheers,

Jools
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Re: Banjo cat identification

Post by Casscats »

Okay so I am wondering if it's very very tiny size, approx 2" or under has anything to do with species as well?

This fish was owned before me for 6 months they said, it has not grown.

That said, bunocephalus minerim and bunocephalus larai are that size, but I don't understand a lot of the anatomy talk in the chart. Epiphysial bar? Scapulo-coracoid?

If I could count caudal rays easier... there might be 9 so minerim could be it...
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Re: Banjo cat identification

Post by bekateen »

Hi Miss Noodle,

Sorry, I haven't yet had time to dig into the research to see if reference figures are available. is by far the most frequently imported species, but I think yours isn't that. I'm not yet sure what it is.

I'll report back when I have more time. It's "Finals Week" right now at my school.

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Re: Banjo cat identification

Post by Casscats »

bekateen wrote: 02 May 2023, 05:10 Hi Miss Noodle,

Sorry, I haven't yet had time to dig into the research to see if reference figures are available. is by far the most frequently imported species, but I think yours isn't that. I'm not yet sure what it is.

I'll report back when I have more time. It's "Finals Week" right now at my school.

Cheers, Eric
Ahh yeah I did hear it's that time of year. No rush, education comes first!

If it helps, I did a count of caudal rays, and it does indeed look to be 9, which according to the page is key to Bunocephalus minerim, but also Bunocephalus larai shares this trait. Comparing ventral views to holotype images, the chest looks more larai (is the epiphysial bar the horizontal bar between the pectoral fins?)
Screenshot_20230502_000018_Gallery.jpg
Screenshot_20230502_000018_Gallery9.jpg

But he is so tiny, it's very hard to say for sure.
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Re: Banjo cat identification

Post by Narelle »

Casscats wrote: 02 May 2023, 04:53 That said, bunocephalus minerim and bunocephalus larai are that size, but I don't understand a lot of the anatomy talk in the chart. Epiphysial bar? Scapulo-coracoid?
Most of the anatomical terms in the key are features of the skeleton. Cardoso, the author of the dissertation this key is from, was working with cleared and double stained preserved specimens and dissected out different structures to look at these features - a lot of the structures described in the key are not visible externally. Unfortunately, it's probably not the most usable key for live fishes because of this.

The "scapulo-coracoid" is a feature of the pectoral girdle (essentially the bones of the shoulder region) - its shown in figure 34 of the dissertation Bekateen linked. The "ventral process of the scapulo-coracoid" is visible externally if you look at the bottom of the fish, it's visible in your ventral photo - this refers to the two bones that stick back towards the tail, beyond the pectoral fins, sort of extending from the "armpit" of the fish. I believe the "% CP" would probably be translated to "% SL" in english - this is a measure of how long this extension is relative to the length of the fish (these are very long in some species).

The epiphyseal bar refers to a bridge between the two pieces of the frontal, which is a big flat top part of the skull towards the snout/above the eyes. (Figures 1 - 15 in the dissertation are diagrams of the top of the skull, you can see the bar in all but figs 2 and 10.) This would likely not be visible externally.

Since you were leaning towards B. larai as a possibility, the other trait distinguishing from in this key, "two bony tubers in the posterior portion of the supra-occipital" present in B. larai, is referring to the bumps at the back of the skull/right in front of the dorsal fin. There's a useful figure in this paper (fig. 2) showing the difference between B. larai and (which was described after this dissertation was published and so is not included in this key). This one is visible externally.
(I have access to this paper, feel free to DM me with an email to send it to if you need a copy.)

--

I work with skeletal anatomy of catfishes, I'd be happy to translate the anatomical terms in Cardoso's key to plainer language/draw up some reference diagrams sometime this summer if there's interest. (There are definitely diagrams of Aspredinids floating around, in works like this and those of de Pinna, just not sure about posting figures from papers without contacting the respective authors for permission? So my inclination is to just make some references of my own.)

But I don't know that I'd recommend using this key for live fishes, given the reliance on skeletal features. It also looks like there are 3 more recently described species, including the one I mentioned above, that are not in this key. (The others being and - I agree with Bekateen's notes in the key, the undescribed species in the key is likely , which was described by the same author in 2010.)

[Sorry if I stepped on your toes at all Bekateen, I get excited about catfish bones and got carried away. 😳]
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Re: Banjo cat identification

Post by Casscats »

Narelle wrote: 04 May 2023, 15:15
Casscats wrote: 02 May 2023, 04:53 That said, bunocephalus minerim and bunocephalus larai are that size, but I don't understand a lot of the anatomy talk in the chart. Epiphysial bar? Scapulo-coracoid?
Most of the anatomical terms in the key are features of the skeleton. Cardoso, the author of the dissertation this key is from, was working with cleared and double stained preserved specimens and dissected out different structures to look at these features - a lot of the structures described in the key are not visible externally. Unfortunately, it's probably not the most usable key for live fishes because of this.

The "scapulo-coracoid" is a feature of the pectoral girdle (essentially the bones of the shoulder region) - its shown in figure 34 of the dissertation Bekateen linked. The "ventral process of the scapulo-coracoid" is visible externally if you look at the bottom of the fish, it's visible in your ventral photo - this refers to the two bones that stick back towards the tail, beyond the pectoral fins, sort of extending from the "armpit" of the fish. I believe the "% CP" would probably be translated to "% SL" in english - this is a measure of how long this extension is relative to the length of the fish (these are very long in some species).

The epiphyseal bar refers to a bridge between the two pieces of the frontal, which is a big flat top part of the skull towards the snout/above the eyes. (Figures 1 - 15 in the dissertation are diagrams of the top of the skull, you can see the bar in all but figs 2 and 10.) This would likely not be visible externally.

Since you were leaning towards B. larai as a possibility, the other trait distinguishing from in this key, "two bony tubers in the posterior portion of the supra-occipital" present in B. larai, is referring to the bumps at the back of the skull/right in front of the dorsal fin. There's a useful figure in this paper (fig. 2) showing the difference between B. larai and (which was described after this dissertation was published and so is not included in this key). This one is visible externally.
(I have access to this paper, feel free to DM me with an email to send it to if you need a copy.)

--

I work with skeletal anatomy of catfishes, I'd be happy to translate the anatomical terms in Cardoso's key to plainer language/draw up some reference diagrams sometime this summer if there's interest. (There are definitely diagrams of Aspredinids floating around, in works like this and those of de Pinna, just not sure about posting figures from papers without contacting the respective authors for permission? So my inclination is to just make some references of my own.)

But I don't know that I'd recommend using this key for live fishes, given the reliance on skeletal features. It also looks like there are 3 more recently described species, including the one I mentioned above, that are not in this key. (The others being and - I agree with Bekateen's notes in the key, the undescribed species in the key is likely , which was described by the same author in 2010.)

[Sorry if I stepped on your toes at all Bekateen, I get excited about catfish bones and got carried away. 😳]
I appreciate this greatly! Thank you! It clears a lot up for me and helps a bit to understand the key.

This fish does indeed have the 2 bumps before the dorsal fin.

The paper you linked also specifies that larai has 10 caudal rays vs 9, which my fish has 9 plus the bumps, leading back to B. minerim.
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Re: Banjo cat identification

Post by Casscats »

Little guy, actually girl, has grown a smidge since I brought her home and has offered a full open tail view and I was able to count 10 caudal rays, which now rules out minerim.
Screenshot_20231125_235907_Videofc Editor.jpg
Screenshot_20231125_235907_Video Editor.jpg
And a photo of her actually out in the open--shes a delight. Really fun fish that I don't see much, but always a pleasant surprise when I do. Also showing her diminutive size.
20231007_140555.jpg
20231007_140428.jpg
20231007_193340.jpg

I will re-evaluate the guide above and reassign her.
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