New Rineloricaria

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Silurus
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New Rineloricaria

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Mejia, E & PA Buckup, 2024. Species boundaries of the whiptail catfish Rineloricaria (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from the Paraíba do Sul River drainage, southeastern Brazil, with species redescriptions and description of a new species. Journal of Fish Biology DOI:10.1111/jfb.15780

Abstract

Species of the catfish genus Rineloricaria are common in the Paraíba do Sul River basin, in southeastern Brazil; here we present a revision of the taxonomic diversity and geographic distribution of the species of the genus inhabiting the basin, based on novel morphologic and molecular data. Five species delimitation methods based on cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 nucleotide sequences yielded comparable molecular operational taxonomic units. The automatic barcode gap discovery, assemble species by automatic partitioning, barcode index number, and Bayesian implementation of the Poisson tree process methods supported the recognition of five evolutionary lineages. These taxonomic units were assigned to the previously described Rineloricaria nigricauda, Rineloricaria steindachneri, Rineloricaria zawadzkii, and Rineloricaria nudipectoris, and an additional undescribed species. R. zawadzkii was further divided into two intraspecific geographically structured lineages using the generalized mixed Yule coalescent delimitation method. A maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis revealed that the five lineages from the Paraíba do Sul have closer relationships to different species from southern and southeastern Brazil (Ribeira de Iguape, Lagoa dos Patos, Uruguay, Paraguay, and Parana river basins) than to each other. Based on the analysis of lectotypes, recently collected material, and specimens from ichthyological collections, the poorly described R. nigricauda and R. steindachneri are redescribed following current descriptive standards. The undescribed species from the middle and upper Paraíba do Sul River basin is formally described. The description of a new species, along with the description of species boundaries in R. nigricauda and R. steindachneri, contributes to the knowledge of the ichthyofauna of the Paraíba do Sul River basin and adjacent coastal drainages of southeastern Brazil. An identification key for the species of Rineloricaria occurring in the Paraíba do Sul River basin is provided.
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